"The Zionist enemy carried out a strike... on some of our military positions south of Damascus," SANA news agency cited a Syrian military source as saying.
SANA said that Syrian air defenses had intercepted most of the Israeli missiles launched from the direction of the occupied Golan Heights.
"The Israeli attack led to two martyrs being killed and seven soldiers being wounded," the source said, according to AFP.
The agency later said a civilian woman had been killed and her husband injured in the attack.
An Israeli military spokesman contacted earlier by Reuters had declined to comment on the report by Syrian media of an Israeli airstrike.
Israel has carried out hundreds of raids in Syria since the war broke out in 2011.
The Israeli military rarely acknowledges individual strikes, but said that on August 3 it had used fighter jets, attack helicopters and other warplanes to hit Syrian military targets in southern Syria.
Hezbollah's leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah warned on Sunday that the Lebanese resistance group would kill an Israeli soldier for each of its fighters slain by Tel Aviv, after one of its combatants was killed in an Israeli strike in Syria on July 20.