Multilateral frameworks "are weakened today, because they are blocked", Macron said in an interview with website Le Grand Continent.
"I cannot help but observe that the United Nations Security Council no longer produces useful solutions today," Macron said, AFP reported.
Except for one videoconference in April, the council – whose permanent members are the United States, China, Britain, France and Russia – has not communicated on the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Macron said "everybody is jointly responsible when some institutions become hostages of the crisis in multilateralism", such as the World Health Organization.
US President Donald Trump has accused the WHO of being too close to the Chinese government and has started a procedure to withdraw the US from the organization.
Now was the right time to "strengthen and structure a political Europe" which could be at the heart of a "new multilateralism", Macron said.
In a speech before the UN General Assembly in September, Macron had already called on the international community to avoid being reduced to the status of "depressed observer" of a US-China rivalry.
In Monday's interview, Macron said he "deeply" disagreed with German Defense Minister Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer who said recently that Europe would not be able to replace the United States as a “guarantor” of its own security.
"I think that is a misinterpretation of history," Macron said. "Luckily, the chancellor [Angela Merkel] does not share that view if I've understood correctly."
The United States would respect Europeans as allies only "once we are serious about ourselves and once we have sovereignty over our own defense".
“We need to build our own autonomy, just like the United States builds its own, and China builds its own," he added.