The center, which both countries agreed to set up in November, was officially opened in the Agdam region of Azerbaijan, Reuters reported.
It will be staffed by up to 60 servicemen each from Turkey and Russia, the Defense Ministry said in a statement.
After six weeks of fighting, Azerbaijan and Armenia signed a Russia-brokered cease-fire for the enclave, which is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but mainly populated by ethnic Armenians.
Turkey said on Friday that one Turkish general and 38 personnel will work at the center.
The Russian Defense Ministry, quoted by Interfax, said that “monitoring will be carried out through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles and the evaluation of data received from other sources”.
Turkey backs Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, and has criticized the co-chairs of the so-called Minsk Group of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) for not resolving the long-running conflict in decades of mediation. The Minsk Group is led by the US, France and Russia.