0630 GMT October 17, 2021
The museum is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in Tehran, which preserves the exquisite treasures of crown jewels under the title of the national treasury. The unique and valuable objects that exist today in the museum of Treasury of National Jewels are a collection of the history and art of this land.
Nader Shah's war booty
Nadir Shah Afshar (1736–1747), the founder of the Afsharid Dynasty, invaded the Mughal Empire of India with a huge army, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. His army had easily defeated the Mughals at the battle at Karnal region and would eventually capture the Mughal capital in the aftermath of the battle. The reason for this war was the asylum of the Afghan rebels in India; the ones who had captured Isfahan and overthrown the last Safavid king. Mohammad Shah of India accepted their asylum and ignored Nader's messages asking him to surrender them. After the Mughal king did not accept to surrender of the Afghan refugee rebels, the Iranian troops crossed the Indus River, defeated the Indian army, and captured the capital Delhi where more than 30,000 troops were killed in the war. Inevitably, Mohammad Shah asked for safety. In response, Nader Shah accepted retreat in exchange for the key to the royal treasury. Priceless jewels including Kuh-e Nur (Light Mountain), Darya-ye Nur (Sea of Light), and thousands of others were brought to Iran.
Nader Shah's Shield
One of the special objects of the jewelry treasury is Nader Shah's Shield, which he used in various wars. With a diameter of 46cm, this shield is covered with rhino skin and is studded with emeralds, rubies and diamonds. Initially, it had a simple cover. But later, like the sword, it was ornamented by the order of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. In the center of this shield you will see one of the largest rubies in the world, weighing 225 carats, surrounded by a star of rows of diamonds, rubies and emeralds.
This diamond may be the first among the national jewels of Iran. This famous diamond and the diamond of Kuh-e Nur, apparently due to the closeness of the name, have always been considered a couple, while in terms of cut and color, they have nothing in common with each other. Both gems were brought to Iran by Nader Shah from his Delhi conquest, but the diamond of Kuh-e Nur was stolen and taken to Afghanistan after Nader's death. It was later presented to Queen Victoria by the East India Company. The gem is still on the crown of Queen Elizabeth II, the current Queen of England.
After Nader Shah's assassination, the Darya-ye Nur diamond passed to his grandson Shahrukh Mirza, and later to Lotfali Khan Zand (1769-1794), the last king of the Zand Dynasty. When Lotfali Khan was defeated by Qajars, the gem was transferred to the Qajar jewelry treasury and now adorns the crown jewels treasury. Darya-ye Nur weighs 182 carats and its color is pink, which is the rarest color of diamonds.
Another most valuable treasure of the Treasury of National Jewels is the Jeweled Globe that fascinates visitors. This globe was made by Iranian jewelers in 1874, by the order of Nassereddin Shah Qajar. The net weight of the gold used in this globe is 34kg and the weight of its jewelry is 3,656 grams. The total number of jewels installed on the globe is 51,366 pieces. The seas and oceans on the globe are represented by emeralds and the lands by rubies, diamonds, and sapphire. On the globe, Southeast Asia, Iran, and the United Kingdom are marked with diamonds, India with rubies, and Central and South Africa with sapphires.
This crown, which was made in the shape of the crown of the Sassanid kings, was used by Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878-1944)and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919-1980). Made of gold and silver, this crown is adorned with high-quality diamonds, large emeralds, rubies, and pearls.
Qajar kings used the Kiani Crown in their coronations, but Reza Khan Pahlavi refused to use it in his coronation. Therefore, in 1925, a group of Iranian jewelers, under the supervision of Sirajuddin Javaheri, the famous Caucasian jeweler and jeweler Amir Bukhara, who had emigrated from Russia to Iran, made the crown from selected gems. Inspiration for the new design was drawn from paintings and historical references to crowns used during the Sassanid Empire, which had ruled Persia from 224 to 651 CE.
The crown of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, known as the Kiani Crown, is adorned with diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and pearls. This crown was made during the reign of Fath Ali Shah (1772-1834) and was used by Qajar kings. This crown is the first crown that has been made in the same way after the Sassanid Empire.
Nur-ol-Eyn Tiara was made for Farah Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah’s last wife. This royal tiara is an iconic and fine work of renowned American jeweler Harry Winston. Worn by Farah on the occasion of her wedding in 1959, the tiara was well-known for its rare pink diamond, the Nur-ol-Eyn. During studies and reviews of on both diamonds of Darya-ye Nur and the Nur-ol-Eyn, experts concluded that they were originally one piece and were later divided into two parts. Darya-ye Nur is the bigger piece, and the smaller piece, Nur-ol-Eyn, weighing 60 carats.