Russia's President Vladimir Putin (2nd R), Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu (L) and head of the Russian Navy Admiral Nikolai Yevmenov (R) attend a parade marking Navy Day in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on July 31, 2022.
The 55-page document said the "main challenges and threats" to national security and development were Washington's "strategic objective to dominate the world's oceans" and NATO military infrastructure moving towards Russia's borders, AFP reported.
"Russia's independent internal and external policy faces counter-measures from the United States and its allies, who aim to preserve their dominance in the world, including its oceans," said the doctrine, signed on Russian Navy Day.
The doctrine said Moscow will seek to strengthen its leading position in exploring the Arctic and its mineral resources and maintain "strategic stability" there by bolstering the potential of the northern and Pacific fleets.
Moscow views the Western military alliance – the Soviet Union's enemy during the Cold War – as an existential threat, using Ukraine's membership hopes to justify its military operation in Ukraine.
Speaking on Russia's Navy Day in the former imperial capital of St Petersburg founded by Tsar Peter the Great, Putin praised Peter for making Russia a great sea power and increasing the global standing of the Russian state, according to Reuters.
After inspecting the navy, Putin made a short speech in which he promised that what he touted as Russia's unique Zircon hypersonic cruise missiles, cautioning that Russia had the military clout to defeat any potential aggressors.