Differentiation between nomos and polis introduced by Gilles Deleuze, a French philosopher, and Felix Guattari, a French psychoanalyst and political activist, can be used to conceptualise notions of individuality, structure, time, space and regulation. Through comparison with other types of Iranian art including music, these notions can be applied to Iranian architecture.
Persian palatial architecture was a self-consciously imperial architecture that united and subsumed numerous architectural and visual traditions, creating unity out of complexity. It imposed an integrative unity over its architectural, ornamental, and figural elements that presented the bloody business of building and maintaining an empire as natural, and even awe-inspiringly beautiful.
The introduction of Islam to Iran altered the appearance of classical Iranian architecture. First and foremost, in the new Islamic Iran, the construction of mosques replaced the construction of fire temples. New mosques were built throughout the land, and in some cases former Sassanid temples were incorporated into mosques. In the early period, mosques were fairly simple in design and functionality. As time went by, Iranian architectural know-how and taste influenced the construction and aesthetics of the mosques. Palace designs also began to acquire Islamic character.
Examples of prehistoric and pre-Islamic architecture of Iran are found in ancient huts, remnants of old towns and villages, fortresses, temples and fire temples, mausoleums and palaces, dams and bridges, bazaars, highways and roads, towers and outposts, garden pavilions, and monuments. The earliest forms of architecture known in Iran include peasant huts and farming hamlets. These structures were made of mud bricks and mortar and featured painted walls.
For about 250 years, from 550 to 300 BCE, Iran was ruled by the Achaemenid Dynasty, named after its eponymous founder Achaemenes. A number of the Achaemenid kings were great builders, starting with Cyrus. He established his capital city at Pasargadae in Fars Province, where he built several palaces and laid out splendid gardens, often interpreted as early evidence for the classic chahar bagh form of the Persian garden. It is not impossible that it was Cyrus who initiated the building program at Persepolis, but the credit for this is usually given to Darius. He and Xerxes were responsible for most of the building work at the site.
The advent of Mongol rulers in India during the Middle Ages saw the emergence of a new vocabulary of art and architecture. The domain of art saw the birth of Mongol miniatures, based on the Persian miniature paintings which were introduced by Humayun, the second emperor of the Mongol Empire, in the early 16tb century CE.
Firouz Firouz was born in a garden house in Tehran, Iran, in 1954. He finished his architecture studies at Pratt University in New York, where he collaborated with Victoria Georgini. Later in his professional pursuits, he worked with Hassan Fathy on mud architecture and brick architecture in Egypt. He established a design office in New York with Nasser Ahari (1985-1990). Ahari and Firouz Architecture Office carried out several projects including a care centre for children suffering from HIV, which was published in The New York Times as an unprecedented project in the US at the time. Their design for a mosque in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, won the first prize in the Aga Khan Foundation Mimar Magazine competition in 1985.
The architecture of old Iranian houses has always inspired the new generation of the country’s engineers. The houses that had an andaruni (inner quarter), a biruni (outer quarter), an entrance and several corridors. Ivans (rectangular halls or spaces, usually vaulted and walled on three sides, with one end entirely open) and the large courtyards were also their inseparable parts.
Non-Christians spend hours admiring the beauties of a church and non-Muslims enjoy drowning in the spiritual ambiance of a mosque. For each of us, it is something special that puts them on our bucket list: The graceful architecture, the attractive decorations, the peaceful ambiance, or a mixture of all.
Visiting the oldest bazaar of Tehran would definitely sound awesome. Regarding its traditional architecture, a superb visual pleasure is provided for its visitors. Furthermore, it is the only wholesale center of Tehran. Nevertheless, it does not mean that you cannot do retail shopping here. It distributes almost all sorts of products to other shops around Tehran.